Famous Scientific Illusions

Date: 
Saturday, February 1, 1919
Volume: 
22
Pages: 
692-734
Archived Page: 
Author: 

ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER February, l 9 I 9 Famous Scientific Illusions (Continued from page 694) The earliest trials were made by Dali- brand in France, but Franklin himself was the First to obtain a spark by using a kite, in June, 1752. When these atmospheric dis- charges manifest themselves today in our wire ess station we feel annoyed and wish that they would stop, but to the man who discovered them they brought tears of joy. latter has the property of quickly dissipat- ing the accumulated charge into the air. To examine this action in the light of pres- ent lcnowlcdge we may liken electric poten- tial to temperature. Imagine that sphere .r is heated to T de ees and that the pin or metal bar is a perfect conductor of heat so that its extreme end is at the same'tem- 4/ ~ _ 'V Q-"' X\ ` .\ (W fy/ , "5 . ’ ` `\_` \ F /if M wil % \‘ il 5 lf ,f < \\ l I," lj lg , ` ll E, . ; I l 1 ; ll ‘ n l i li Ji i \i / /Sl Q tix ws / -l . ~ / \" ,/ /" \t-. /’ \;\ I, V' /' \ ` §;;_\a;` /_/_f ' ' //' \ 'f,';;' ; Hgii-f /,_/, . /” \ ____.; _ ._ _ ny 7 The Theory Has Been Serlously Advanced and Taught that the Radlo Ether Wave Osclllatlogl Pan Around tha Earth by Succelllvl Raflectlonl, al Hera Shown. The Eftlclencx of Such a Reflector Cannot he more than 25 Per Cent' the Amount of E u| | 12.ooo- ll -r | : | |-f norgy ecovera e n a m u rlnlm ll on he ng but One undred and Fl!- teen Bllllonth Part ol' One Watt, with 1,000 Kllowlttl at the Transmitter. The lightning conductor in its classical form was invented by Benjamin Franklin in 1755 nnrl imm<-

February, lf) l 9 est intelligences have been unable to dispel. Experimental science, itself, most positive of all, is not unfailing. In the following I shall consider three exceptionally interesting errors in the in- terpretation and application of physical phe- nomena which have for years dominated the minds of experts and men of science. I. The Illusion of the Axial Rota- tion of the Moon. It is well known since the discovery of Galileo that the moon, in travelling thru space, always turns the same face towards the earth. This is explained by stating that while passing once around 'its mother-planet the lunar globe performs just one revolution on its axis. The spinning motion of a heavenly body must necessarily un- dergo modifications in the course of time, being either retarded by resist- ances internal or external, or acceler- ated owing to shrinkage and other causes, An unalterable rotational ve- locity thru all hases of planetary evo- lution is manifbstly impossible. What wonder, then, that at this very instant of its long existence our satellite should revolve exzictly su, and not faster or slower. But many astrono- mers have accepted as a physical fact that such rotation takes place. It does not, but only appears so; it is an il- lusion, a most surprising one, too. l I will endeavor to make this clear by reference to Fig, I, in which E rep- resents the earth and M the moon. The movement thru space is such that the arrow, firmly attached to the latter, always occupies the position indicated with reference to the earth. If one imagines himself as looking down on the orbital plane and follows the mo- tion he will become convinced that the moon dues turn on its axis as it travels around. But in this very act the ob- server will have deceived himself. To make the delusion complete let him take a washer similarly marked and supporting it rotatably in the center, carry it around a stationary object, constantly keeping the arrow pointing 5-;cqgoucrmo nm ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER vision the disk will revolve on its axis, such movement does not exist. He can dispel the illusion at once by holding the washer lixedly while going around, lle will now readily see that the supposed axial rotation is only apparent, the impression being pro- duced by successive changes of position in space. _,:sLsernonAeNe~r|c usnrz. w/west" ' »R»xo|AreoHon|zoN Aux Fnom venrnnlfi -conovc-roa.auo»i£":i`Lfll" “ ' JJ' /-1 ` ,,.¢a- " ';»»-.V \ f< /Z\`\ `_,~\ a ~.~L ‘i W (‘l$"'; ,ai gb.; .» 1” mm, ~~ w,ua§' ?*»¢.,`t> Tait,” -4j‘~‘¥-\ _ . jet 4 , .., *uf »+-‘JL my a5t »,~ gfss of | cuss# N »1 , “” ,. s oseittari o En v au east I; "'“ nv Ponrgtcn 1' e owes » .. mil _ p no nowemearl ae onAwN AT AN _,ii 151 R i __ ,pp . FROM A UNlVlR5A\. ceN'rRAU BT&l_~$ ~ _ iw .3 fr ' ~ _ I gr/ig _ _ l ' ' l " _ Q. 1 _ Q .--A257;,~;*-;51¢=<~ __ _ ~ I ..\zi»1~; i '~=__;,¢.;al _ _?=< ~ __ » ‘-I . _ _"». L_ 1 af , ‘ _. ` __~._v\ Q’ _ L- -. .= ~~¢ . - :_&. " up "l ' Qi- \~"I '- V ~ ___1 ;._~\( i . , _ ti. -_ __;;-_,¢5,_. dst; I- 1 §___\_ ~_ \ `\¢_ _ ~ -tix.. _ _ >. _ _ _v» 5, j, ._ ,f , ,‘ , - L _ I » ‘» I »¢ ;¢» ~~-~ 1;;@‘f ~ »» sc- > _ » _ ,,( \ l ~;_ . is ,;'-"_g., '_ sf '_ c \‘ ~. ,_ _ "/l‘<~ 2' 25:55 "~T~-*nf -‘ ' »` _ _ f 6 »~ - =`1.;`~lk="‘*'»".n‘f` E-wi.. ,- li », ~» 1 ‘ -' 1 ' I A ‘ ` @lY"1'Z_,§~}1‘. _ "\_ If ~,,_ if-,»’ _f ‘ ‘ ‘ _Q31 '_ - <, _ f ;_ » '* =§»“` ~ 1" W ~ 2 <€. ` .’ g\` L I I 1 ,~‘ ' W". r ‘- ky? -a J I ‘ -' .'i"it3‘ff3 _ I _<,. - ,ft ftitj _. . 1,5 ‘ _ '~ - H; \ ,~~'* “7 .yz ‘_ .ffnfffa itil - _ _.=" `, i_g§`;l{:' ‘“_=i`i .b3¥li?" - l~ ":"1, :Qi " ’, f "?1_`§5‘?_Q'4 * _ ~ ` ' t, ' ~ f~?-=“ _f, -_ iq; _~.»=~»¢.~1;i',2~=: »__ . _ f _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ » _,,;";`¢-yi! ./_`___' "' » = . 11,3 ri, _ .V .:. ._ ._ ,, .Hn V :.t_.3)_,_. _ I`~;__;.J,l{»‘,_?§;1§ g>._ - ` If 6 , _V " y . 1 _xfpafl ` _:ta _ , _.V ly; , ‘I 4 :_ _ . .Q __ W w " 'Li u 5 I . _'. ij , .~l'~-; ’r- _, -.1 ‘ ' ..`.'».. ,nf .. 'J . ,_ ’- _tu V." .- Tn|l‘| World-Wlds Wlroleu Trlnlmllllon of Elsctrlcll Slgnlll, Al Well Al Ll ht and Power, Il Here Illustrated In Theory, Analo and n || tl . '1' I ' E I t wnh 100 Fnnt Dnehnrgu At Putentlan af Mulimm of vom t-wave oemnnnratea That the Hertz gd/lava. *ii ii"“"i""“=i i"' 5555; T53 &";:°°“:,'#°A°; ::° E°°°":'.‘:Lz ‘sam ‘£{..‘12,'°E>J¢5..*$’;'%.5¥ outs:

694 energy of motion, The innnn is not posscst nf such z'i.r vi-utr. lf it were the case then a revnlviin; hotly as hh \\~oul2;:i7_; ,;'/ ff; 5 February, l 9 l 9 show any mcasnrahle flattening in form. Z, If a planetary hotly in its orbital move~ ment turns the same side towards the cen- tral mass this is a positive proof that it has heeu separated from the latter and is a true satellite. 3. A planet rewnlving on its axis in its passage around another cannot have been thrown off from tl\e same hut must have he-en captured. II. The Fallacy of Ft-anklin's Pointed ~ Lightning-Rod. The display of atmospheric electricity has since ages heen one of the most marvelous spectacles afforded to the sight of man. Its grandeur and power filled him with fear and superstition, For centuries he attrih~ uted lightning to agents god~like and su- pernatural and its purpose in the scheme of this universe remained unknown to l\im. Now we have learned that the waters of the ocean are raised hy the sun and maina tained i|\ the atmosphere delicately sus» pended, that they are trafted to distant re- 4“/'/;§555 ; ;i`ff _ eions of the glohe where electric forces ff ” § §~-:s assert themselves in upsetting the sensitive /' halance and causing precipitation, thus sus- \ '/ ~ Ee taining all organic life, There is every ,E reason to ltoie that man \vi|| soon ht* ahle if ” 3-gl tn enutrnl tliis lift--giving tlntv til water '_ " aigrlxtherehy solve many prcssiin; prnlileins _ __-- 60'--,`__ 0 is existence. ///‘ '/4/445 }/5 U/0,7 M,//,;. ,;" Atmospheric electricity hecame of special f m. , U “R scientific interest in Franklin's time. Fara- %WA{Z;;;”u;7f;Z 0""}5¢’/”-f~'//‘7ff7”9/70/f /05” f”/ffgi def day had not yet announced his epnchal dis- ' yer# “_ Z” W ” ff /M D “V ”"' " eoveries in magnetic induction hut static 2( F” ll frictional machines were already generally used in physical lahoratories, Franklilfs A Section of the earth and na Atmospheric Envelope Drawn tn scale. it Is obvious Tnat the Herman Rays Cannot Traverse So Thtn a Crack Between Two conauuttng surfaces For Any conslaarabia Distance, wnnant Being Ansnrned, says Dr. Tesla, In Dlscusxlng tna Ether Space Wave Theory. we have t-xpcrimcntal evidence, lrrespt~c- tire til' this so exact a cnincitlt-ncc I-t-tueen the axial and orhital periods is, in itsclf, immensely imprtvhalvle fnr this is not the permanent ‘condition tt>\\ar *_ __ ,WH »~ T'-’“""_“m' *__* i '77E'l'\‘hl§i:x»K E A ra ~ MOON'S SHADOW JUST TOUCHING: SDBEADSOVER THE EARTH'5 SURFACE WITH INFINITE PLANE OF ECLIDTIC SHADOW _PASS£5_.DJLER_`|1t<.E_£A.Et]'_l:|_ WITH ITS TRUE VELUCITY SPEED :’\=r ,"g.tt" li).- Jy; _ '%> , Q `7` . °\ ""` 'etc a ~ @_,,a_Ll_m:,*,h 1 ch “l a ’fl3f’=§, ‘liz \»~ EARTH AGAIN Rencntrte |Ni=n~u're gf Q .5- sweeo om; vit. yt/gt: <9q§§&)s;,/ 1417/;l_§‘£1 ._;r- .;;,. -‘_, t _ _V ~ < .-.;f,~t\,-=~ t. -~~.f-____,_____ ' ' " ' ' i l “‘ 1-"-:I-?:i=72¥¢ "2 ____,___s______ , I Y YY YYY `<\ .i l if ~§fi:f':Z `i. "ii T : ' ‘gn T~~-~»~~-__a,__ 12:1 3"1,f,€'-iW5"`a fl; ’ . ` ' T _ - ~ ~ I 5..»;:;:ts-Mn ' " 1- __ '.~_::»:¢°»@:1 » _.'5~ t THRU suite; _ ,,_, ,_ { =» . , i. " T "” "'”' ` ' .t`l.:=Z}'Qt--_Z,I` '1;. ' - ,,;‘ti=5-E1`I1&2`¢!: ="f,-3"' _ »--_.__».~ ._,¢_,,_-,n»j_,,_.§ {»_;¢"3::. - _ .;. .~,p~ ’». ' .~ _gr §é~;.'t;v.ay§ -#gin-.;§--¢, ' 11.-t;f§_1J_5’ ~» rf "f1._-~1<3~'i:i1,. Y, 1 ffl `» V . - i~\ooN's snnoow LEA\/ING rt-iz <;~'$,¢$, _ ‘ ,_ - ‘f?,§,<»L if 5' .. ,_ ~,=,:;L2_t_,. ~----~~-- ~ _ » » _ _ _ , -;r;;t, _ ,LEM i\f3'f}i§§Yf" t, ci; _ _ _ __ __# t ' | FIU. B.-This Dlagnm Iltuntratel How. During n Solar Eclune, the Moan'| Shadow Pollen Over the arth Wllh Chnnillng Vslocl y, lné Shoul Be Shldled In Cortrwt- !l0r1 Wlih Fig, 9. The Shadow Moves DOWl'\\Nl|`d Wllh \Y\|ln|!B V€lGC|!y Bl Flrll, Then Wttl' Its True Velnclty Thru Space, and Flnllly Wlth Inllnlte Velaclty Again.

EIJECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER FAMOUS SCIENTIFIC ILLUSIONS (Continued from page 730) high frequencies. The striking behavior_of the currents soon captivated my_ attention and in 1889 I started a systematic investi- gation of their properties and the possibili- ties of practical application. The _first gratifying result of my efforts in this direc- tion was the transmission of electrical ener thru one -wire without retum, of whiciyl gave demonstrations in my lectures and addresses before several scientific bodies here and abroad in 1891 and 1892. During that period, while working with my oscillation transformers and dynamos of frequencies up to 200,000 cycles per second, the idea gradually took hold of me that the earth might be used in place of the wire, thus dispensing with artificial conductors altogether. The immensity of the globe seemed an nnsurmountable obstacle but after a prolonged study of the subject I became satisfied that the undertaking was rational, and in my lectures before the Franklin Institute and National Electric Light Association early in 1893 I gave the outline of the system I had conceived. In the latter part of that ear, at the Chicago World's Fair, I had the good fortune of meeting Prof. Helmholtz to whom I ex- plained my plan, illustrating it with experi- ments. On that occasion I asked the cele- February, l 9 l 9 brated physicist for an expression of opin- ion on the feasibility of the scheme. He stated unhesitatingly that it was practicable, provided I could perfect apparatus capable of putting it into effect but this, he antici- pated, would be~extremely difficult to ac- complish. I resumed the work very much encour- aged and from that date to 1896 advanced slowly but steadily, making a number of improvements the chief of which was my system of concatenated tuned circuit: and method ‘of regulation, now universally adopted. In e summer of 1897 Lord Kelvin happened to pass thru New York and honored me by a visit to my laboratory where I entertained him with demonstra- tions in support of my wireless theory. He was fairly carried away with what he saw but, nevertheless, condemned my project in emphatic tenns, ciualiiying it as somethin impossible, "an ilusion and a snare." I had expected his approval and was ained and surprised. But the next day lie re- turned and gave me a better opportunity for explanation of the advances I had made and o the true principles underlying the system I had evolved. Suddenly he re- marked with evident astonishment: “Then you are not making use of Hertz waves?" ‘fertainlly not,” I replied "these are radio- |¢on.r. o energy could be economical! transmitted to a distance by any sucli agency. In my system tl1e process is one o tru: conduction which, theoretically, can be effected at the greatest distance without appreciable loss." I can never forget the magic change that came over the illustrious philosopher the moment he freed himself rom that erroneous impression. The skep- tic who would not believe was suddenly transformed into the warmest of support- ers. He parted from me not only thoroly convinced of the scientific soundness of tl\e idea but strongly exprest his confidence in its success. In my exposition to him I re- sorted to the following mechanical ana- logues of my own an the Hertz wave system. Imagine the earth to be a bag of rubber hlled with water, a small quantity of which is periodically forced in and out of the same by means of a reciprocating pump, as illustrated. _ If the strokes of the latter are effected in intervals of more than one hour and forty-eight minutes, sufiicient for the transmission of the impulse thru the whole mass, the entire bag_will expand and con- tract and corresponding movements will be imparted to ‘pressure gauges or movable pistons with t e same intensity, irrespective of distance. By working the pum faster, shorter waves will he produced wlfiich, on reaching the opposite end of the bag, may be reflected and give rise to stationary nodes _and loops. _ but in any case, the fluid being incompressible, its inclosure perfectly elastic, and the/ frequency of oscillations not very high, the energy will be economic- ally transmitted and very littlefower con- sumed so long as no work is one in the receivers. This is a crude but correct rep- resentation of my wireless system in which, however, I resort to various refinements. Thus, for instance, the pump is made part of a resonant system of ‘great inertia, enormously magnifying the force of the |mprest_\mpulses. The receiving devices are similarly conditioned and in this man- ner the amount of energy collected in them vastly increased. The Hertz wave system is in many re- speets_ the very opposite of this. To ex- plain it by ana ogy, the piston of the pump is assumed to vibrate to and fro at a ter- rific rate and the orifice thru which the fluid passes in and out of the_cylinder is reduced to a small hole. There is scarcely any movement of the Huid and almost the whole work performed results in the pro- duction of radiant heat, of which an in- finitesimal part is recovered in a remote locality. However incredible, it is true that

February, I9 l 9 the minds of some oi the ablest experts have been from the beginning and still are, obscst by this monstrous idea, and_so it comes that the true wireless art, to which I laid the foundation in 1893, has been re- tarded in its development for twenty years. This is the reason why the “stat1cs’f have proved unconquerable, why the wireless shares are of little value and why the Gov- ernment has been compelled to interfere. We are living on a planet of well-nigh in- conceivable dimensions, surrounded by a layer of insulating air above which |s_a rarefied and conducting atmosphere (Fig. 5). This is providential, for i_ all the air were conducting the transmission _of elec- trical energy thru the natural media would be impossible. My early_expenments have shown that currents of high frequency and great tension readily pass thnx an atmos- phere but moderatey rarefied, so that the insulating stratum is, reduced to a small thickness as will be evident by inspection of Fig. 6, in which a part of the urthland its gaseous envelope is shown to scale. If the radius of the sphere is 1246* then the non-conductive layer is only,i,6| thick and it will be obvious that the Herman rays cannot traverse so thin s ersclt be- tween two conducting surface! for any considerable distance, without bein ab- sorbed. The theory has been serlousfy ad- vanced that these radiations pus around the globe by successive rejlcmom, but to show the absurdity of this su?‘estion refer- ence is made to Fig. 7 in whl this process is diagrammatieal y indicated. Assuming that there is no refraction, the nys, as shown on the right, would travel along the sides of a polygon drawn around the solid, and inscribed into the conducting gaseous boundary in which case the length of the side would be about 4M miles. As one- half the circumference of the earth is ap- proximatelg' 12,000 miles long there will be, roughly, t irty deviations. The eiiciency of such a reflector cannot be more than 25 per cent, so that if nun! of the energy of the transmitter were lost in other ways, the part recovered would be meuured by the fraction (%)". Let thetrsusmitter radi- ate Hertz waves at the use of- 1,000 kilo- watts. Then about mu Mildred and fifteen billionth port of one wot# ll all that would be collected in a pcgzd receiver. In truth, the rellections W0 d be mod! more nu- merous as shown on the left of the figure, and owing to this and other reasons, on which it is unnecessary to dwell, the amount recovered would be a vanishing quantity. Consider now the process taking place in the transmission by the instrumentalities and methods of my invention. For this purpose attention is called to Fig. B, which gives an idea of the mode of propagation of the current waves and is largely self- explanatory. The drawing represents a solar eclipse with the shadow of the moon just touching the surface of the earth at a point where the transmitter is located. As the shadow moves downward it will spread over the earth's surface, first with infinite and then gradually diminishing velocity until at a distance of about 6,000 miles it will attain its true speed in space. From there on it will proceed with increasing velocity, reaching infinite vague at the op- posite point of the globe. t hardly need be stated that this is merely an illustration and not an accurate representation in the astronomical sense. The exact law will be readil understood by reference to Fig. 9, in which a transmit- ting circuit is shown connected to earth and to an antenna, The transmitter being in action,_ two effects are produced: Hertz waves pass thru the air, and a current traverses the earth. The former propagate with the speed of light and their energy is unrerauemble in the circuit. The latter proceeds with the speed varying as the cosecant of the angle which a radius drawn from any point inuler consideration forms ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER

ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER February, l9l9 with the axis of symmetry of the waves. At the origin the speed is infinite but grad- ually diminishes until a quadrant is traversed, when the velocity is that of light. From there on it again increases, becoming infinite at the antipole. Theoretically the energy of this current is recoverable in its entirety, in properly attuned receivers. Some experts, whom I have credited with better knowledge, have for years contended that my proposals to transmit power with- out wires are_sheer nonsense but I note that the are growing more cautious every day. Tllie latest objection to my system is found in the cheapness of gasoline. These men labor under the impression that the energz' Hows in all directions and that. there ore, only a minute amount can be re- covered in any individual receiver. But this is far from being so. The tp0wer is conveyed in only one direction, rom the transmitter to the receiver, and none of it is lost elsewhere. It_is perfectly practicable to recover at any point of the globe energy enough for driving an airplane, or a. pleas- ure boat or for lighting a dwelling. I am especiailgganguine in reward to the lighting of isolated places and believe' tliatua fum, economical and convenient method can hardly be devised. The future will show whether my foresight is as accurate now as it has proved heretofore.

lJ.ECTRlCAL EXPERIMENTER FAMOUS SCIENTIFIC ILLUSIONS. (Cmstinued from page 728) nqh qh ii-=-_-__ Thus the dil- nr(nr+h) r(nr-l-h) ference of potential between the point of the pin and the medium around the same February, l 9 l 9 the positive charge of the cloud induces in the earth an equivalent ofposilr charge, the density at the surface o t.he latter dimin- ishing with the cube of the distance from the static center of the cloud. A brush discharge is then formed at the point of the rod and the action Franklin anticipated takes place. In addition, the surrounding » --W - -- - . 4- -~f--- -- air is ionized and rendered conducting and, ' I-."‘U, ‘lv '\ eventually, a bolt may hit the building or i <` V- _ P _ some other object in the viciniéy. The vir- ' \ A ‘¢_\,-1 __ ‘Vt :~’ tue of the pointed end to issipate the kg _ -~.Qf,‘_:»,_ ,W X, chacge, which was uppermost in Franklin's ` ""’ “°`1`._f{l min is, however, infinitesimal. Careful " ' measurements :haw that it would take many year: before the elechiqily stored in u .tinge cloud o/ moderate .nze would be /<1 / drawn off or neutralized thru .rush o light- ; 'lei' rung conductor. The grounded rod has the quality of rendering harmless most of the strokes it receives, tho oocasionally the gi charge is diverted with damaging results. :A _ But, what is very important to note, it Jnozié- invites danger and hazard on account of fl' L'g~ the fallacy involved in its design. The ,eg§._,§gfl,,,;,;f,- - _ sharp point which was thought a vantage- _ ous and indispensable to its operation, is ' ` ` really a defect detracting considerably from I the practical value of the device. have Flg. 4. Tesla Explalne the Fallacy of the Franklln Pointed Llghtnlng Rod, Here IIlu|- trated. and Shows t at Usually Such I Rod Could No( Draw Off the Eloctr Clly In I Sln- gle Cloud In Many Years. The Denllg' of the Dotl lndlcates the Intensity of the hargea. r + h will be smaller in the ratio l- when nr + h the large sphere is used. In many scientific tests and experiments this important ob- servation has been disregarded with the result of causing serious errors. Its sig- nificance is that tl\e behavior of the pointed rod entirely depends on the linear dimensions nf the electrified body. Its quality to give off the charge may be en- tirely lost if the latter is very large. For this reason, all points or projections on the surface of a conductor of such vast dimen- sions as the earth would be quite ineffective were it not for other influences. These will be elucidated with reference to Fig. 4, in which our artist of the Impressionist school has emphasized Franklin's notion that his rod was drawin electricity from the clouds. If the eartii were not sur- rounded by an atmosphere which is gener- ally oppositely charged it would behave, despite all its irregularities of surface, like a polished sphere. But owin to the elec- trified masses of air and clnucfthe distribu- tion is greatly nmalilierl. Thus in Fig. 4, produced a much improved form of li ht- ning protector characterized by the empioy- ment of A terminal of considerable area and large radius of curvature which makes im- possible undue density of the charge and ionization of the air.* These protector: acl as quasi-repellent: and _va far haw never been .struck tha exposed a long lime. Their safety is experimentally demon- strated to greatly exceed that invented by Franklin. By their use property worth millions of dollars which is now annually lost, can be saved. III. The Singular Misconception of the Wireless. To the popular mind this sensational ad- vance conveys the impression of a single invention but in reality it is an art, thc sue- cessful practise of which involves the em- ployment of a great many discoveries and improvements. I viewed it as such when I undertook to solve wireless problems and it is due to this fact that my insight into its underlying principles was clear from their very inception. In the course of development of my in- duction motors it became desirable to op- erate them at high speeds and for this pur- pose I constructed alternators of relatively 'Refer to the October, 1918 islue of this jour- nal wherein Dr. 'resin new iorm of me-pointed lightning rod wal fully delcrillerl and illu|lrlterl. (Czmlinurd on page 732) _ "____ _______ ...--- ---~-- f j iff" %'==~Z§;; '-~»»-~~» _.,___ __>______ _ ` > ` ` x ` i . y, S ny. 3 Dlagram Used to Explaln the Flllacy of the Franklln Pointed Llghtnlng Rod, Ind an Analogy Wheroby the Author Show! ln a Clear Manner' How the harged Sphere May for Illultratlon be Conlldared no Heated to a Hlgh Degree, and the Halt Allowed to Elclpo lt a Known Rl!!

692 ELECTRICAL EXPERIMENTER February. l 9 l 9 Famous Scientific Illusions By NIKOLA TESLA Wrilinl rpnially /or Ihr Elzztviral Expuimnllzr ln this original and revolutionizing discussion, Nikola Tesla gives us something really new to think about. I-irst-Does the moon rotate on its axis? Second-ls the Franklin pointed lightning rod correct in theory and operation? Third_Do wireless signals ily thru space hy means of so-called Hertzian waves in the ether, or are they propagated t.hru the earth at prodigious velocity hy means of earth-hound oscillations? World-famous conundrums these-questions which have been answered in many ways by some of the greatest sciendsts. Dr. Tesla explains these three predominant scientific fallecies in a masterly way, 'ao that everyone can understand HE human brain, with all its won- derful capabilities and power, is far from bexng a faultless apparatus. Most of its parts may be in perfect working order, but some are them. electric current according to a childishly simple rule. The writer, who was known to recite entire volumes by heart, has never been able to retain in memory and re- capitulate in their proper order the words reality. The greatest triumphs of man were those in which his mind had to free itself from the influence of delusive ap- pearances. Such was the revelation of Buddha that self is an illusion caused by atrophi undeveloped or missing alto- designating the colors of the rainbow, and the persistence and continuity of mental gether. _f¢3f men of all classes and pro- can only ascertain them after long and la- images; the discovery of Copernicus that, ,; ie, .. .A Milli; iii; ' 3 '° .em l . _ ,-fM__ ,_,,.<",» ,, ;> ‘;¢ e ` fflffl if ' " Ii" il `5r~f`f@f .3;=;.f"if"`-f'5¥'i5`lf`5;`f'i" if 'IQ E_l3’§. ,.-r -- /6g§E=§E§ - -~ = _ ~ f= fl- 1;~_ 1 f- '_ V '_ __V__V___Y ééésg égeélé f_,_.j ~ ; _ 3 ,f _`;:,"; _,_ gtrészg géigiisr-i ------ -> , -I _, f _ ‘N _.M-_,LM _,__ _- _.‘ , ,_l_ _ ._ \iii§'»issvo`*¢i7lf ~ ~- r< -_ ~ ll, it l 1- w -1 ir.: w`§5%;f¢/ -ss W- ;~ Q j.; ; 5 :~ __ Qi 1 /' '* f;t I i'_.`r;f_3;'?1i~°f ';'f5f`s`-i~.`f_i:' ff wr It ls Well Known That the Moons M., Always Turnl the Same Face Toward the Earth, E, al the Black Arrows Indlcate. The Parallel Raya From the Sun Illumlnate the Moon In Its Succelslve Orbltal Posltlona as the Unahaded Seml-clrcleu Indicate. Bearlml Thlu In Mlnd, Do You Bellave That the Moon Rotltee on Ita Own AxI|'l Flu. 2.-TesIa’l Conceptlon of the Rotation of the Moon, M Around the Earth, E; the,Moon, In Thll Domonltratlon Hypothelllr Belng Consldered aa Embedded In I Solid Mall, Ms. I , As Commonly Belleved, the Moon Rotatel, Thll Would Be Equally True For e Portion of the Maas Ms and the Part Common to Both Bodloa Would Turn Slmuitlneoully ln "Oppoalte" Dlractlona. fessions-scientists, inventors, alld harml- headed financiers-have placed themselves on record with impossible theories, inopera- tive devices, and unrealizable schemes. It is doubtful that there could be found a single work of any one individual free of error. There is no such thing as an infallible brain. Invariabl , some cells _or dlbers are wanting or unre- sponsive, with the result of impair- ing judgment, sense of propor- tion, o r s o m e no such thlnl. other faculty. A g man of genius § eminently prac- tical, whose name IS a household - word, has wasted § the best years of 3 his life in a vis- _ ionary undertak- 2 ing. A celebrated a horiulls tllullgllt, strange :ls it lllay seem, Our organs of reception, too, are defl- cient and deceptive. As a semblance of life is produced by a rapid succession of inani- mate pictures, so many of our perceptions are but trickery of the senses, devoid of lnlilllllllllllllullnllullulnmln||l|N|l||uu||l||l|l|llllllllllllllxlulllllllllnnull|||||l||l||4||1||m|||||||ll||ul|||||Nn||lllulnl||\l|l|ln|n|n|ll||lulllllnllllllnllnululllullulnlllltlmlllllwuallltuulllllllllllllllllllllullllillnlmlllllllg on over s century and s half th. wlrsls world, educated .sul otherwise, ¢hsuslu that ¢hs s moon revolved around ltl axis. Nikola Tesla_ln tho pretent hl|hly lnatnletlve artlcle dla- 3 proves that theory srul srlll sssvlsss sslshtlsss and all others sllus that the russu ass. 5 E For thousands of yssrs lt wss uusushl nun the sus s-ul stsrs revolved iround the earth srul 5 contrary to rlll observation, this planet ro- tates around the sun; the recognition of Descartes that the human being is an automaton, governed by external influ- ence and the idea that the earth is spherical- which led Columbus to the flnding of this continent. And tho the minds of individuals sup- plement one an- other and science and experience are _ continually elimi- § all lslnda ol experimental prools were furnished to suhstsuusts tbla theory. The lllustrloul E “Mins f2\ll2¢i¢S Galileo thought dltterent, sua everyone today knows that the earth revolvaa around ths suu. So lt ls wlth Tesla’| rlls¢svsry_ 'rssls also, ln th. second psrt ol the present sspsf, shows us that the ancient sua time-worn theory s.-lvsusssl by Bsulsuslu Franklin ss to lhs llghtnln E 5 and misconcep- E tions, much of our ssrraustsr la use subsssrnlslly correct ss vlswsa by lsusr slsy aelenee. lt will sslus ss s shock § Present k\10wl=dz¢ svsu to sur srstsssurs that the llghtnlng rua actually alds the llghtnlnr lu hlttln|' :hs building. 5 is still incomplete ‘rhs reason In that the ll htnln rua hel s ln lsulslu (makin sssulust vs) ths dl l I | lr 1 ¢ surreuh ug u r. Mr. Tesla has devlaed a ll htnlng conductor wlt no points, and there la no doubt vhltlo- E E and unreliable. We ever llrst hls theory ls right. gclentlsts the ssrlrl over wlll ssluussrlsrlss this vsry shsrny. s haw Svvhisms in ln s third sssusu of urs ssh.. ss er Tesla sssls-lss sllll another popular asluslsu, vis., that sslrslsss wsvss lsllsw ll-s curvature ortho earth vlrsu russsssss are tranensltted, let us ssy lrom s sslul ln th. uhltsa Ststss tn s ,slut ln lzursss. ln hls rsvulullshsry srsurusuts, auppnrted hy § mathematics which § cannot be dis- Iacta ss well ss by lo ls, Tesla shows why ths currents as not travel around the ssrth hut s Pf0V°d- EV¢“_ in directly thru lt. ln stlisr words, Tesla suslutslus that wlrslsss communication ls ssssussllshsrl ONLY thru the medium ofthe earth msn. l»lls suutsutlsu ssssus very ssusul_ ll It were ust ss, lst every wlrslsss station, commercial or slhsrwlss, do away with ns ound ssuusstlsu. None = § u r e reasoning. g flree of the short- could then operate ss ls well known except perhn s over very llrultsrflrllstsusss. s ¢°ff\~\“gS. Of Wm- Mr. Tes|s’s present artlele will srouss wut-lid-wide comment due ts ths rsvslutlunary E bolic processes, plwsicist was ,,,_ s philosophy contained thereln. We are surs our readers wlll sssrsslsls lvlr. 'rsslsrs must timely E capable of tracing § = and llluminatlng article on this hut little understood Luhjeet. E we are often ar- ; rested by doubt wh ich the strong- the direction of an Emmllillllnnliiluni.nurwillfunnmlmiinullllnmlllun"mlm"llmwillillvn"vnuimm"lnlwmlulnmlillnnmlmllmllmmmmmm"nnlmmmnnlnmllmnmnmlnmmnmllm-»m¢:--llul||s|~||im|m|l»|l~a cs/»,»r»',,l»z, ww, l., P. cr. All rar,/nr rrlrrssu.

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