Tesla And Roentgen Rays

Wednesday, April 22, 1896
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The New York Evening Sun April ZZ, 1896 rsstl Ann noEnNmEN rms gzzurwn or :saws oy 11715 :ca ur or cnnuc A1°`FIN'ITl'. Every letal ar Conductor ls Korn or Lee! a loaves or lun r~|trea\ns»'l'1\r»e mrsaess or lt-e\n\\en> Must Bs l‘r\>- lirsd ly Bossa Rallaslola \R'|l\<’\l KU" In lla lelhsl- Xlkola Tesla. ln the present number of the };|retr(¢‘ol Jhrfnv. glves the results of hls latest Rqntgen YS] invnatlgatlon. lle says that the behavlor sf the vsrlous metalsln NKIN 1° W" geetlon of these radlatlons gives nddltlonul support to hls previously expressed oolnlou that Vnltfs 8IEtrlcoonta|et serles ln atr ls ldcntlral with thas-whleh ls obtained when mrsnlrlnl the rnetlls nooordlnz to tholr powers of relloc- th.m_¢h. ~n°¢¢ °\¢¢q_|-9.p°sit|ve metal belng-the beet reneetor. He connned hlmsel( to the tol- lnsvlng mettqls most easllY oxPGflm°ll\¢fl “PGH- wil.: Magneslnm. lead. tln. iron. ¢`°DP°l'- SUV"- Kom .ml phdnnm, Tesla decides that lt ls fall' to draw the following conclusions: Fu-"__ the highly exhausted bulb emlts matc- rlal stlolmsvrhlch. illfvlliklntl 01| I m°7»'\m° "1" “hx ug nneqmd: second. thcse’_ streams are termed of matter ln some primary Of §l°m°“"° sry condltlon: third. these material llrfhml #fe probably the same agent which ls the cause of nm elects-o~motlve tenslon between metals ln_ elcse oroxlmlty or actual contactssnd they may v¢|tbly, to some extent. determine the enorgv of ooiblnatlon of the metals with ox!'R°¥\2 ¢°\“»g§_ everyrnet-al or conductor ls more or 1091* asonrooiof aneh streams: nfth. these streams ar radlatlona must be P\‘°d“°°d U7 mm” "‘d"" tions which exist ln the medium: and. sixth. ggrsams rossmbllng the cathodlc must be gmidylby the hun and probably 810° bl’ "me" sonlooo of radiant energy. such as an arc llght or Bonsen burner." 1-uh then prorecds`t»o glve hls reasons for ‘n.|y||;g ge these conoluslona. rl; explanation of theffact that there exists an '1.°k|¢ m-egs\;i°e- or dlderenoe of potentlal he~ tween two metals ln close' proxlmlty or contact. hz-:v’:'mu|Lwhen conslderlng all the forego- {ng.|:om6 to the fourth conclusion. namely. u\a\-the 'metals emlt slmllar streams. and l thngfqgbgistlclpate that. lt a sensltlve nlrn he plsesd between-we-, uhm. say. of mMr“°=*“'“ ‘mg nop,”-_ | true Rontgen shadow Dlcture vgnldbs obtilned after avert' lon: QXDOGUYG in ¢,\,¢¢qk_ Or. ln ¢enorsl,_ such Dlcture could 5, secured whenever the plate ls .nllrod "H" . metalllo or oondnetlngbodt leavin! for U10 wiht the Insulators ont of consideration. godldm, one of the drstof the electrlc contact so- ngs, but not yet experlmented upon. Sholild ||vs out more of such streams than even msu- eeslam. A ~~o\mees1y, such streams could not be forever lymlwad, unless there ls a contlnuous supply of_ rsldlatlun from the medium ln somenther form: ur poealhly th¢-*streams vhlch the bodies them- selves ernlt are merely reflected streams xc-mlng from other -sources. But slnco all lnveetlga- tlon hu strengthened the oplnlon ndvanced .hy Rbntgen that forthe ,rrudnetlon oltbase radius tlons some lmpaot ls requfred.thn former of the :wo poulbllltlos ls the more probable ons. and we usuit assume that the radlallons exlstlng ln the medium' and uh-ln: rise to those hero con- sidered partake eumothlug of the nature of _cathodlo streams. _" Hutlf snub streams exlst all around us ln the unhisnt medlum. the question srlses. whence do they come] The only answer ls: From the sun. 1 infer. therefore. that the sun and other nouroes ofradlint energy must,ln u less degree, etnlt Yldlhtlons or streams of matter slrullar to those thrown 03 by an electrode ln s highly exhausted inelosnre. This seems to be. at thls moment. stlll a polnt of controversy, Accord- ln;; to my present convlctlons, a llontgon shadow pleture should. with very long expo- sures, be obtained from all sourpes of rsdlant energy, provlded the radlatlons are permitted .first to lmplngo upon a metal or other body. “The preeodlng conslderatlons tend to show that the lumps of matter composing s eathodlo stream in the bulb are* broken up 'into lncom- parsbly smaller particles by impact agalnst the wall of the latt/er. and. owing to this. are enabled l l 1 l wpsea tow the alr. Allsvldencewhlch I have so far obtained points rather to this than to the throwing of! of particles of the wall Itself under the violent lmpactuf the cathodlc stream. Ae-_ oording tn my eonvletlons tbon.`thi`~dlKcrence between Lena-rd andkpntgen rag! I! there bo any. lies solely ln thll. that the particles oem- Doslngr the latter are lncomparahly smaller :ind vos-sesaa higher velnclty.` To these two qnnlltl- catlonn I chiefly attrlbutc the nondefleellbllltv by a magnet. which I believe wlll be dlsprovod lu the end. Both klnds of rays, however, adoct the sensltlve plate and Guorescbnt screen. only the rays discovered iwfxguntgén are mllch more edeetlvo. We know now that these rays are produced unde1 certsln excep- tional Conditions In s. bulb. tho vacuum_ being extremoly high. and that the rsnge of greatest aetlvlty ls rather small." , ` Tesla believes that the Robtgen rave-are incapable of ralslng the temperature et the body. Ho adds that to tx-ace the lost energy, whim amounts to 04 per cent. and account for lt tn s plausible way will be equivalent to mak- ing a new! discovery( By the use ot oertaln apparatus which he ds- scrlbes. Tesla says: " I have been enabled to examlne much bet/ lu than before thebody by means ul' the Huur- esoeut screen. Presently the vertebral column Cllllbo ken qulte c|earl)'.ert~u ln the lower part uf the body. I have also clearly nutedvtlle onl- llnea of the hlp bona. Looklng ln‘ the reglon of the hun ,I have been able fn locate lt un- mllfnkably. The background n||pe.1red much brighter and Lhla dlflerenue ln the lntcnslty of the shadow and eurrouudlng has snrprlsed me. The ribs I could sbe on a number of occasions (nite dlstlnftly. as well a.s the shoulder bones. Of course. there ls no dlf!1culty\\ha1e\'crln obsofvinl the bonoao! all limba. l noted certain peculiar eliecte which X attrlhuted to the oll. For tnatanoe, the rays passed through ulates or mot-nl over one-eighth of an lnch thlrk. and ln one instance I could see qulte clearly' the bonus of my hand through sheets of copper, iron and bflsd of a thickness of nearly one- quarter of an lnch. Through glass the rays seemed to pass wlth such freedom that. looking through the screen ln n dlrectlon st right gnglee In the uls of the tube. the actlon was xuost lnwuao. although the rays had to pass through a great thickness of glass and oll. A glass slab nearly one-half of nn inch thick. held ln front of the screen. hardly dlmmed -the tlnoresoenoe. When holding the screen ln frpnt of the tube at s distance of about three tees, thebead of an assistants thrust between the screen and the tube. cast but s feeble shadow. lt appeared some tlmes ns lf the bones and the uesh were equally' transparent to the nglatlons passing through the oll. When very mosh lb the bulb, the fscreen was illuminated through thebody of an ~nsslstant so strongly that. when A hand was moved ln front. I could clearly note the motlnn nf the hand through Q", bgdy. ln one lnsusucu I rould oven dlstln~ “iq lk bones ofthe nrm. `°H|Y1D¢ 'Observed the extraordinary trans. pgrenoll of the bones In some lxxetunces, I at mit; surmlsed that the rays might he vlhrs. tions l `of hlgh pltclx. and thst the on her] gn some I way' lbwrbcd A hurt of `th¢-m. This y-gi; however. became unlenable when I found ki lt” avtortaln dlstnnce from the bulb X ob- \|lD¢¢ llhlm lllldovfof the bones. Tlxls lat. abeervstlon led me up Apply -1-dolly the person ln fAXll’\Y impressions on the p1a¢.,_ ,X|)h¢ly. in such cas-en lt_lr of advantage lu fl;-gt, sktermlue by means ur the screen the proper dlslanr e~ al. which the nhlevt ls to he placed ho- ltfhklns UV! llhbrcsslml. It will he found they.” often the \mngv~ \- moth den" _I _ ¢}l.lf_\'(lllav|f r. ln Qc!-sr tuavold any nn-or gwheu 0l>lf\'\'\l-lx \\ ‘Pl the screeu.l have snr. ixlsd the has with tlncu metal panes so as 3° W”'°“'-"W fl'-\"'Ne'te|\::e. ln consequence of the radlatlons. reaching the sc teen from _mc sides. I bellave that such an srrangment ls absolutely necessarv lfone vrlshes to make con rect observations." Tesla deeldes tlnally that the announcement of Prof. J. J. Thomson that all bodles traversed by Ilnntgen ‘radlatlons became condwclndrs of electrlclty ln thai common aoceptatlon bf the term conductor ls not true. Tesla concludes hls arllcle by saylng that the method that he (Tesla) has followed ls so dellcate that a mls- take ls almost an lmpoaslblllty. l