The Illusion Of The Axial Rotation Of The Moon

Sunday, January 26, 1919
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ND llnally the scientist., having “To the popular mind this eensetiunnl verturning Few of Our Most Confirmed Notions The Illuszon of the Axial Rotation of the Moon ,____,_.i__ HESE -ere smszing theories brought forward by Nikola 'Tesla ln "The Electrical Expefi- menter" (or February. The hrst gf them smashes ,eur venerable concep- uon about the moon’s rotation. Tesla d,¢);ree! “lt ls well known since the discovery of Gslllee that the moon. ln ¢YtV¢llih¢ \l\Y°\-\Zl\ ”“,_'|1weys_turn| the seme face toward ml ugh. This is explained by statin! “ng 'bile passing once eround'ite mother- ,Lmet the lunar globe performs just one “solution on its sxis. The spinning mo- tion of s heevenly body must necessarily ugepgoiriodihcetlons ln the course uf tlmc, Ng” either retarded by resistances lr\~ gr-esl or external, or sccelcruted owing to shrinkage and other causes. An unaltqruble nutional velocity through ‘ull phases of Phnury evolution' ls msnlfestly impossi- ble. Whst wonder. then. that at this very |n|Qnt of its long existence our satellite' should revolve exsctly snpend not' faster gg slower. But, marry astronomers have ae0l9¢0d» ss e physleal (set that such rota- tleertekes elsee. lt does not. but only .peers sox it ls sn illusion. e mosh sur- prising one. too. “I will' endeavor to make thie cleqr lm ngneneg to Fhrure l, ln whlch'E represents the earth rind M the moon. The rno_vemcut gh;-eugh spncé is such that the arrow, M-mly attached to the latter, ulwuye occu- ples the position indicated with reference to the earth. lf ont: imagines himself as lepklng down on the orbital plane and ‘fol- lows the motihn he [will become-convinced thst the meen dues turn on its axis as it tnvels around. Hut ln `this very set the observer will have deceived himself. To mn, gh; delusion complete let` him tnkn e usher similarly marked end. sunnortinz It rotatably in the centre, curry it around s stationary object, eonsysntly keeping me arrow pointing toward the letter. Though to hie hedllyfvlslori the disk will revolve ee lts axis, such movement does not exist. Bl tan dispel the illusion at.` onee by lwld- \“¢ gh, wether hsedly while going around. He wil? now resdily see that the *eup~ Pug ||i|1'ro\,qti0n is only spparunt, the ,Z ‘I ,. I/ f "W r~?-»‘“~'6 V; as ;».¢_ "l\f§*Be=,;1-M ___ t. P” \€<§§§]‘=i"~`?'l/ l' , =>.=2§::' 5 l 5 x Y : Q ' -f Fig. 1 It is Well lmuwn that the Moon, M. slweye turns the same tece'£o- wsrd the Earth, E, as the black arrows indicate. The parallel rays fromlthe Sun llluinlnute the Moon ln ltd successive orbital' positions ee the unshaded semicirclae indi¢ cate. Bearing this in mind, do you believe that t!.e Moon rotates on its own axle? liyreeslon being produced-by sueeeeslve (ienges ef position ln spsee. “But more convincing proofs csn be given llet the moon does not. and cannot revolve ll ltl ull. Wlth this object ln view stten- ilon ls called to Flgure 2, In which both the “\4llllf°- M. and esrth, E.'ere shown lm- Ndded. In s selldwnses. M' (lndlested by '"PP|l'\l) and ellPDOssd to rotate so es to lmPl|’¢ t0 the mann its normal trsnslntory velocity. Evidently, lf the lunsr globe could rotate es commonly, believed, this would be equslly true of any other pg,-_ tles ol mass M‘. ss the sphere M’, shown ls dotted lines, and then the part com- mon to hath bndles would have ‘to turn simultaneously in epposite directions. This can be experimentally lllustrsted in the ‘msnner'suggesv.ed by using, instead of one, two overlapping rotatable washers, es may be conveniently royresented by circles ll- nnd l\1’, and carrying them sround s een- tre es"E, so thst the plain sud dotted sr- rows are always pointing toward the same wntrs. No further argument ls needed tv demonstrate that the two gyrstlenl cen- not-vzouxist or even be plotured ln the imagination end rctonclled in a purely sle- stract senen. “The truth is the eq-celléd fexlsl rete- tion' 'nfrthe moon li a phenomenon de- ceptive slllle to ‘tho eye and mind and de- void of physical meaning. It has nothin! in. common with reel mess revolution chu'- acterized by effects positive and unmlstsh- able. Volumes have been written qu the subject and many erroneous arguments ld- vsncsd in support of the notion. Thus, it is reasoned that if the planet dld not turn on its ssls lt would expose _the whole sur~ face to terrestrial vieyv; ss only une-hal! is’ visible, lt must revolve, The Ant state- ment is true, but the Ing-‘lc of the seeomd ll defectlvejfor lt admits of only one eltlemu tive. The conclusion is not iustldetuithe frfzlii f!1”f` , .~ ‘ Y rll ( ‘ 1 ~ \ u ¢ \ ., r tA1(l:(:»s_3_`~.tV I v L l J' . .-._~\_,__. ,..._ .. -.~s5\,;¢‘- -;\~1 J ‘u r v \. 'Sv '- _».:.~=\~.,\u.~,’.' -' ti ; ~.;z\-_,:_f;_,<,'..=~;1_"f~¢:j1 ?`, lgq ll, "°"' ~ - - - - - - - ~ _ _ fill ~ l .f1,;2~` fl-.iZ‘},’~€fV¢fi 3=$`7 '_ '1 ' :13;' ff-s,»~f=I-.¥t=l i A.=zl» ._ _ _ ,`l__.: WIN we vnu: vrwcirv L# <1-, iz 41./,'.;.:¢;F°7‘{I t 4--$~, _ __ . -_ --e _ ._ _ ~ , _ , 1 =_-,nz :;:2*»;i/ 1<‘./ ~;-:' ' .-¢`I=1?~{"" ;'.2;f>'>5-? ;.<_:, H.. ‘- , -fr" ' -fi»'t;.< fi =§-Sifigf ,‘ 44, fills; -' \ .ff sk 'A 7~1}I5.:< J tlt ~.’ ' ,' “ _ _' ‘ _ , ~ 3 ‘_ _~ . -:--»- 1, N , ,,, , ,..A,. U); F J >» v "'z’ > , ‘V J El- JN ' Qi-5 i*T»@£;#=;2>; 1:?~r_>_~.; "ff: if 1 ,yt -~> ry ,;'f,1M. \ ll ` _;¢ _Q f/;q. 6 ‘Z-\_;,_,___;_ ` , ,__:_ , - j ' ,\§\,»-Z_,» .,,, -_ ._ _ » ~ ;, ;., __ < 'f ns, _ ‘Q i 5. , 1; , V f_;».-, ;,_ E »,~v.Q._ , =- L ` _ , $571 li .‘ X,-" _ l I . 4 _,» 3' _C ~ v4Il} m/7:5 a/any ta/'Mr nr/an , , /g//ng ar /ag/er lo :tw m “,,M,',',”,}md “yi/Zuma :men fHfU3 a/ar# ' /f ~ K, `.,. » ' 2 ’ 1, M" Q §;l"¢. ` i , ff X » V ~ ., i i f , \\ 4 nur, /._ ’ t N € ‘ ,'_.l§& ?§‘l;`l, ‘ \§ %‘ I * '°’5' \ 7/J 1 . i 60. »- I I, W” ./4mm ‘ A section bl the earth and its atmospheric envelope drawn to, scale. .It is obvious that the Hertzian rnys cannot traverse so thin a crack between two con- ducting eurfac s for any considerable d stance without being ebsorhed, es I _ ~ ~ Y Dr. Tesla, in idlscussmg the ether space-wave theory. megnlfylng the fbrto of tho impressed lm- pulaes. The redsivlng devices are slml- larly conditioned and in this manner the *smuu`nt ot enerzy collected in them vastly increased. "The Hertz wsve system ls in msny re- spects the vary opposite of this. To ex- Pllifl lt by annl0E!» the piston of the pump is assumed' to vibrate to and fro at a terrific rate and the orllioo throuyh which the fluid passes in snd out of the cylinder is re- duced to s small hole. There is scarcely any movement of the fluid and elmust the whole work performed results in the pro- duction of radiant heat, ol which an ln~ liniteelmal part Us recovered ln s remote 'locnIity, However incredible, it is true that the minds of som`e of the shlcst experts have been from the beginning, and still it comes that the true wireless nrt, to which l laid th: foundation in 1883, has been retarded ln its development for twenty yeqrs. This is the reason why the 'Statics' have proved uncunquerable, why the wire- less shares are of little value and why the governm'ent has been compelled to inter-f (are. "We are living on s plsnet of well~nlgh inconceivable dimlnhslons, surrounded hy a layer ol insulating sir above whiuh is s rsrelled and conducting atmosphere (Fig. 5). This is providsntial, for if all the sir were conducting the transmission of eleg- trlcal energy through the natural mullin would he impossible. My early experi- ments have shoyvn that currents of high frequencylnd great tensiun readily pass through an utmusphere but moderately rsrelled, so that the insulating stratum is reduced to s small thickness ss will be evi- dent hy inspection nl Fig. 0, ln which u PSV! ul the earth and its gaseous envelope is shown to scale. ll the radius of the sphere is 12%', then the non-vonducting layer le only `1/64' ¢hl¢k, sea itfwlll he ohviaue that the Ilsrtzian ruys eshnot traverse so thln_s ¢`teék between two conductinf sur'- fqees for any eonsldcrshle distance, with- out hsieg absorbed. “The tllvvlfy has been seriously ed- vsnqed that these rsdlutlons pass around the glohehhy successive reflections. but in show the absurdity of this euggestlvn ref- erence is dude to Fil. 7 ln which thll pmeess ll dlslremmetlcslly lndlclted. As- suming that there is no ~refrsetloh, the. rnys. ss shown on the right, would trseel llultl the -sides of e palygoir drawn srotlnd the solid. end lnssrlbsd into the eondeetlng gaseous boundsny, in which , ease .the length o! the side would he about 400 mllee. As oueihslf the felreumterenee are, obsessed by this monstrous idea, and so & i amount recovered would he s vanishing quantity. "Consider now the process taklngfplece in the tnnemlnlon by the lnetrumenlsll~ ties and methods nf my invention. For this purpose attention is called to Flg. I, lhish gives sn idea of the mode of propagation of the current waves and ls largely eel!- explanatory. The drawing represents s solar eclipse with the shadow of the moon just touching the surfaee of the earth st e point where the transmitter ls located. As' the shadow' moves downward lt will spreld iilifitiii QT :-I _~ _,.....i _...___-: i - , `:. :'.___i~' =: l .;;;_;" ,V \_ ......I=¢.....-.. .... we-muv l I I i .._._. ,1 ,_ ev ». ~ N v .1 _1;¢‘S “.» »-25 Rh e 5- gm;- - ,egsooafiw ses ensues -3-_~; ev -‘,___sr-ssev_y~ scuv¢sss¢s._... ,_.__.._ -.-- i " i .z W QQ) . ` »-.» » ‘I 1 n . B s / 1 ~ \ 5 ~ ,ul . . ___ ng. 9. onmonr. , over the eorth’s e\!!¢l°l» flrst with 'l°fl”"'° ‘end than gr-sduslly diminishing vlleclti ~ until st s distance .af elwill 0.000 lllhl' “ i will sttslu its trueflplli ln.spaeeL from gh.” ap` lt, will nvooesd with llllflllll .,.1°¢;¢y, i-e|ehln| lnllnlte vslwe at the Ol* elite point of theyloba, It lllI‘¢‘"zhNl¢ ,lie -mea me me is manly as lllss ti" lend not sn enente representation In the sstrosemlesl sense. “1')\e' greet levrwlli lhiriidlly '-Uidereteod, by reference to Pint, `le‘wbl¢l\fl ~\fl\\!l|\" ¢|e| 'slreuit ls shave ¢l\\§l¢f»Q‘~Q¢ *UW ned to snjsutepil. '|'\5\f¢"\"i|!fll' Ulu* l' _g¢¢lo|1,.tW0,I|ll¢tl'; lf* D¥°‘l“°'5‘ B°"' “ni gsss _through hehe- slr; ssd1s5 earnest . ° 9 The Fallacy of F ranklm s Pointed Lightning R od ESLA next addresses himself to the lightning roll, end com- ments ss follows: "The dlspley of atrnospherle sleetrlelty hss slnee sires been one of the most mar- vellous spectacles slorded ts the~sl¢ht of msn. Its grandeur end power dlled him with lssr and superstition. For centuries he attributed lightning to' egentegodllks sud supernsturslt and its purpose ln the scheme of this' universe remained unknown to him. New we have learned that the wstege of the ecoan are raised' by the sun and mslntslned ln the atmosphere `dell~ csteliususpended-and that they sre'wafted te distant regions of the globe,where‘elec- lrle fumes assert themselves ln upécttlng the sensitive hslsuee sud causing precipitation, thus sustaining slhergsnle life. There ls every reison to hope that msn will econ he ehle te eenlrol this life-glvlng flow of wstelysnl therehy solve msny press|n|_ problems ol his existence. "Atmulphsrlv elsetrlelty bieeme of spe- slsl `selentli\e Interest ln l’rsuklln's time. Fersdsy _hed not yet snnouneed his epoehsl dlseoverlss In msznelle induction but etstle frlctlonsl msehlnes were already generally used ln physleal leborstorlee. l‘renklin's powerful, mind st»on¢e leaped to the con- clusion that lrletlonel and atmospheric clue. trinity were Identical. To our present View this inference eppeers obvious, but in his time the mere thought of it was little short of blasphemy. _He investigated _the phenomena und argued that ll they were ofthe ssme nature then the elouds could he drained ol their chnrge exactly ss the bull of s static mschlne, and in 1749 he indicated ln e published memoir how this could be done by the use gf peinted'metsl rode. » "The earliest trials were fnsde hy Dsl- brund in France, but Franklin himself was the first to obtain m spark' by using s kite, In June, l752. When these atmospheric dis- charges msnlfest themselves to-deylln our - wireless station we (cal unnoyed und wish that they would stop, but to the man who discovered them they brought tears of joy. "The lightning conductor in its classical form wss Invented by Benjamin Franklin lin |755 and lmmcdlutely upon its adoption proved u success to s degree. As usual, however, lt; virtues were. often exagger- sted. So, for lnstnnee, lt was seriously claimed that ln the city of Pietermarite- bun; (capital of Natal, South Africa) no llghtnlng strokes occurred alter the point- ed rode were installed, although the storms were ss frequent ss belnre. Experience has shown that just the opposite ls true. A modern city like New Yurlgprcsentlngin- numershle sharp points und projections ln good contact with the earth, ls struck much more often than en equivalent ares of lend. Statistical records, carefully compiled end* published from time to time, demonstrate that the danger from lightning to property and life hes been reduced to e.emall perl centage by FrsnkIin’s invention, but the llnmage by' llre amounts, nevertheless, to suv nal million dollars annually. lt is "_ tunishlng that this device, which hes been in unlverssl use for more than _one cen- tury and e half, should he 'found to ln- volvs s gross fallacy ln design md un. struction which impslre its usefulness end may even render its employment hazardous under certain conditions. All points orvprojectlons on the surface of s eondmtor of such vastdimenslons as u the earth would he qulte luehetlve VO!! it not for other lnllueneee. The|e‘Ulll